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Food Waste In Pakistan Essay In Urdu

Environmental issues in Pakistan include deforestation, air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, climate change, pesticide misuse, soil erosion, natural disasters and desertification.[1] These are serious environmental problems that Pakistan is facing, and they are getting worse as the country's economy expands and the population grows. Unfortunately, not much is being done to tackle these issues, because the goals of economic growth and tackling terrorism within the country supersede the goals of environmental preservation. Although NGOs and government departments have taken initiatives to stop environmental degradation, Pakistans environmental issues still remain.

Economic consequences of environmental degradation[edit]

The majority of Pakistan’s industrial sectors, for example fishing and agriculture, which count for more than one fourth of the output and two fifths of employment in Pakistan,[1] are highly dependent on the country's natural resources. Hence in order to sustain economic growth there is a high demand on already scarce natural resources. However it is ironic that what the country depends on for its growth is also what threatens the future welfare and success of the country. According to the World Bank,[2] 70% of Pakistan’s population live in rural areas and are already stricken by high poverty levels. These people depend on natural resources to provide income and tend to overuse these resources. This leads to further degradation of the environment and subsequently increases poverty. This has led to what the World Bank refers to as a "vicious downward spiral of impoverishment and environmental degradation." [2]

Pollution[edit]

The World Bank report in 2013 stated that Pakistan's top environmental issues include air pollution, inadequate supply of uncontaminated drinking water, noise pollution and the health deterioration of urban and rural populations due to pollution. These environmental concerns not only harm Pakistani citizens but also pose a serious threat to the country's economy. The report also stated that the increase in industrialization, urbanization and motorization will inevitably worsen this problem.[3]

  • Trash thrown in an empty plot in Karachi, Pakistan

Water pollution[edit]

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan

Pakistan faces a major scarcity when it comes to water resources, especially finding clean water. There is only one major river, the Indus River, which supplies water throughout the agricultural plains in Punjab and in Sindh, while the rest of the country has very little access to other fresh water.[1] The scarcity of water not only threatens Pakistan's economy but also poses a serious threat to the lives of millions of Pakistanis.

The issue of water pollution further worsens this problem for Pakistan. The sources for water pollution include the overuse of chemical fertilizers, the dumping of industrial wastes into lakes and rivers, untreated sewage being dumped into the ocean, and contaminated pipelines being used to transport water.[4] The contamination of fresh drinking water makes it harder for people to find clean water supplies and increases the prevalence of waterborne diseases. Consequently, most of the reported health problems in Pakistan are either a direct or indirect result of polluted water.[5] 45% of infant deaths are due to diarrhea and 60% to overall waterborne diseases.[6]

Noise pollution[edit]

The megacities of Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, face the issue of noise pollution. The main source of this pollution is the traffic noise caused by buses, cars, trucks, rickshaws and water tankers. A study showed that on one of Karachi's main roads, the average noise level was around 90 dB and was capable of reaching about 110 dB. This is much higher than the ISO's noise level standard of 70 dB, which is not meant to be harmful to the human ear. However, the study also concluded that in Pakistan, "the traffic noise levels limit as laid down by National Environment Quality standards, Environmental Protection Agency is 85 dB".[7]

This high level of noise pollution can cause auditory and non-auditory health issues. Auditory issues include the loss of auditory sensory cells; non-auditory health issues include sleep disturbance, noise and cardiovascular disease, endocrine response to noise and psychiatric disorder.[8] Unfortunately there are very few, vague laws and policies in regards to noise levels. There is no accountability, and while the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies receive dozens of complaints on noise pollution from the public, these agencies are unable to take action due to legal constraints and the absence of national noise level standards.[9]

Air pollution[edit]

Air pollution is a growing environmental problem in Karachi, especially in the large metropolises. According to a World Bank report, "Karachi's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy"The inefficient use of energy, an increase in the number of vehicles used daily, an increase in unregulated industrial emissions and the burning of garbage and plastic have contributed the most to air pollution in urban areas. According to a recent study, Karachi's Environment Protection Department claims that the average level of pollution in big cities is approximately four times higher than the World Health Organisation's limits. These emissions have detrimental effects, including "respiratory diseases, reduced visibility, loss of vegetation and an effect on the growth of plants."

One of the greatest contributors to air pollution is industrial activity. The inadequate air emission treatments and lack of regulatory control over industrial activity has contributed to the deterioration of ambient air quality in major cities. In addition, the common practice of burning massive amounts of solid waste, including plastic and rubber, on street corners by the public, releases toxic gases, which are extremely harmful for residents in the area.

Climate change[edit]

Main article: climate change in Pakistan

Climate change has affected the people and the environment of Pakistan in different ways. Although Pakistan is a relatively small emitter of greenhouse gas as compared to other countries, the country will, however, be greatly affected by the negative impacts of climate change. According to the Pakistan Economic Survey of 2014-15,[10] the "increase in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events coupled with erratic monsoon rains causing frequent and intense floods and droughts" are the most prominent problems Pakistan will face due to climate change. The survey concluded that the change in weather patterns has destroyed infrastructures, has taken many lives and has had devastating impacts on the agriculture sector, which has in turn has affected Pakistan’s economy.

According to the BBC Climate Asia report,[11] the majority of the Pakistani people surveyed claimed that climate change has heavily impacted their lives in the form of floods and droughts, and most importantly has affected the availability of resources such as energy and water. 53% of Pakistanis felt that their lives had become worse off than they were five years ago. Although the effects of climate change are evident, the survey found that the majority of the people were unaware of the meaning of climate change, and "ascribed changes in climate and extreme weather events to the will of God."[11]

Natural disasters[edit]

Main article: List of natural disasters in Pakistan

Due to Pakistan's diverse land and climatic conditions, it is prone to different forms of natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, droughts, cyclones and hurricanes.[1] A disaster management report claims that the provinces of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Balochistan and AJK are vulnerable seismic regions and hence highly susceptible to earthquakes, while Sindh and Punjab constantly suffer from floods because they are low-lying areas.[12]

Some of the worst natural disasters that Pakistan has faced include the 1935 Quetta earthquake when around 60000 people were killed, the 1950 floods when an estimated 2900 people died and 900000 people were left homeless, the 1974 Hunza earthquake where around 5300 people were killed, the 2005 Kashmir quake that killed at least 73000 and affected more than 1.5 million people, and the Pakistan floods of 2010 where 20 million people were affected.[13]

Conservation efforts[edit]

Main article: Conservation in Pakistan

The government has expressed concern about environmental threats to economic growth and social development and since the early 1990s has addressed environmental concerns with new legislation and institutions such as the Pakistan Environment Protection Council. However, foreign lenders provide most environmental protection funds, and only 0.04 percent of the government's development budget goes to environmental protection. Thus, the government's ability to enforce environmental regulations is limited, and private industries often lack the funds to meet environmental standards established by international trade organizations.

National Conservation Strategy[edit]

The National Conservation Strategy Report has three explicit objectives: conservation of natural resources, promotion of sustainable development, and improvement of efficiency in the use and management of resources. It sees itself as a "call for action" addressed to central and provincial governments, businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local communities, and individuals.

The primary agricultural nonpoint source pollutants are nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus), sediment, animal wastes, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint sources enter surface water through direct surface runoff or through seepage to ground water that discharges to a surface water outlet. Various farming activities result in the erosion of soil particles. The sediment produced by erosion can damage fish habitat and wetlands, and often transports excess agricultural chemicals resulting in contaminated runoff. This runoff in turn affects changes to aquatic habitat such as temperature increases and decreased oxygen. The most common sources of excess nutrients in surface water from nonpoint sources are chemical fertilizers and manure from animal facilities. Such nutrients cause eutrophication in surface water. Pesticides used for pest control in agricultural operations can also contaminate surface as well as ground-water resources. Return flows, runoff, and leach ate from irrigated lands may transport sediment, nutrients, salts, and other materials. Finally, improper grazing practices in riparian areas, as well as upland areas, can also cause water quality degradation. The development of Pakistan is viewed as a multigenerational enterprise.

In seeking to transform attitudes and practices, the National Conservation Strategy recognizes that two key changes in values are needed: the restoration of the conservation ethic derived from Islamic moral values, called Qantas, and the revival of community spirit and responsibility, Aquila-UL-bad.

The National Conservation Strategy Report recommends fourteen program areas for priority implementation: maintaining soils in croplands, increasing efficiency of irrigation, protecting watersheds, supporting forestry and plantations, restoring rangelands and improving livestock, protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries, conserving biodiversity, increasing energy efficiency, developing and deploying renewable resources, preventing or decreasing pollution, managing urban wastes, supporting institutions to manage common resources, integrating population and environmental programs, and preserving the cultural heritage. It identifies sixty-eight specific programs in these areas, each with a long-term goal and expected outputs and physical investments required within ten years. Special attention has been paid to the potential roles of environmental NGOs, women's organizations, and international NGOs in working with the government in its conservation efforts. Recommendations from the National Conservation Strategy Report are incorporated in the Eighth Five-Year Plan (1993–98).

In a recent study conducted by Global CLEAN campaign, it was found that the average temperature in Pakistan had risen by .2 degrees in only two years, This is a dramatic change and puts emphasis on climate change campaigns.

Land use

  • Arable land - 27%
  • Permanent crops - 1%
  • Permanent pastures - 6%
  • Forests and woodland - 5%
  • Other - 61% (1993 est.)
  • Irrigated land - 171,100 km² (1993 est.)

Protected areas[edit]

Main article: Protected areas of Pakistan

Pakistan has 14 national parks, 72 wildlife sanctuaries, 66 game reserves, 9 marine and littoral protected areas, 19 protected wetlands and a number of other protected grasslands, shrublands, woodlands and natural monuments.

International agreements[edit]

Pakistan is a party to several international agreements related to environment and climate. The most prominent among them are:

Treaties and agreements
Specific regions and seasLaw of the Sea, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78)
Atmosphere and climateClimate Change, Ozone Layer Protection, Nuclear Test Ban
Biodiversity, environment, and forestsDesertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Wetlands, Marine Life Conservation
WastesHazardous Wastes
RiversIndus Waters Treaty

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcd"The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-04. 
  2. ^ ab"11. Environmental Issues - World Bank"(PDF). worldbank.org. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 
  3. ^Sánchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Shuja Khan, Asif (2014). "Cleaning Pakistan's Air: Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution"(PDF). www.worldbank.org. World Bank. 
  4. ^"Brief on Water Pollution"(PDF). environment.gov.pk. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 
  5. ^Sabir, Ismat (28 November 2012). "Water is Becoming Scarce". Pakistan Observer. 
  6. ^"Satellite Based Monitoring of Groundwater Storage Variations Over Indus Basin"(PDF). www.pcrwr.gov.pk. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resource, Ministry of Science & Technology. 
  7. ^"Traffic Noise Pollution in Karachi, Pakistan"(PDF). Journal of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences. 09. 
  8. ^"Exploring Noise Pollution, Source and its impacts: an anthropological Study of rawalpindi city"(PDF). Pakistan Association of Anthropology. ISSN 1013-5316. 
  9. ^"Position Paper for environmental quality standards of noise in pakistan"(PDF). environment.gov.ok. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 October 2016. 
  10. ^"Pakistan Economic Survey 2014-15, Environment". Pakistan Federal Budget. 2014. 
  11. ^ abZaheer, Khadija; Colom, Anna. "Pakistan, How the people of Pakistan live with climate change and what communication can do"(PDF). www.bbc.co.uk/climateasia. BBC Media Action. 
  12. ^Irshad, Muhammad; Ali, Arshad; Iqbal, Shahid (April–June 2015). "Disaster Management System of Pakistan". Acta Technica Corvininesis- Bulletin of Engineering. 8 (2). ISSN 2067-3809. 
  13. ^"Ten worst disasters in Pakistan". DAWN.COM. 2011-09-24. Retrieved 2016-11-12. 

External links[edit]

As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants.[1] Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants.[2] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants.[3] As of 2012, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~3.6% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to ~62% from fossil fuel, ~33% from hydroelectric power and ~0.3% from coal electricity.[4][5] Pakistan is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency.[6][7][8] Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.[9]

History[edit]

Professor (and later Nobel laureate) Abdus Salam, as Science Advisor to the President, persuaded President Ayub Khan, to establish Pakistan's first commercial nuclear power reactor, near Karachi.[10][11] Known as Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), the commercial power plant is a small 137 MWeCANDU reactor, a Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor.

PAEC's Parvez Butt, a nuclear engineer, was project-director. The KANUPP began its operations in 1972, and it was inaugurated by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Munir Ahmad Khan as PAEC chairman.[12] The KANUPP which is under international safeguards is operated at reduced power. In 1969, France's Commissariat à l'énergie atomique and United Kingdom's British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) contracted with PAEC to provide plutonium and nuclear reprocessing plants in Pakistan. Per agreement, the PAEC engineers were the lead designers of the power plants and nuclear reprocessing facilities. While the BNFL and CEA provided the funds, technical assistance and nuclear materials. The work on projects did not start until 1972, and as a result of India's Operation Smiling Buddha — a surprise nuclear test in 1974 — the BNFL cancelled the projects with PAEC.[citation needed] In 1974, PARR-II Reactor were commissioned, and its project directors were Munir Ahmad Khan and Hafeez Qureshi. The PARR-II is an indigenous reactor that was built under the auspices of PAEC's engineers and scientists.

In 1977, due to pressure exerted by U.S. Secretary of StateHenry Kissinger, the CEA cancelled the projects with PAEC immediately. Without the assistance of United Kingdom and France, the PAEC engineers completed the plutonium nuclear reprocessing plant — New Labs — and the plutonium reactor — Khushab Nuclear Complex. Both power plants are commercial power plants control by PAEC. In 1989, People's Republic of China signed an agreement with Pakistan to provide 300 MWeCHASNUPP-I power plant under the IAEA safeguards. In 1990, both France and Soviet Union considered the Pakistan's request to provide the commercial nuclear power plants under the IAEA safeguards.[13] But, after the American Ambassador to Pakistan's Robert Oakley expressed U.S. displeasure at the agreements between the Soviet Union and France, the contracts were cancelled.[14] By the 2000, China had expanded its contract with PAEC and is currently[when?] assisting in construction of III, and IV power plants. II was completed in April 2011. Due to its growing electricity demands, the Pakistan Government ordered PAEC to set up nuclear power plants in the country. According to PAEC, the goal is to produce 8800 MW electricity by the 2030. Prime minister Yousaf Raza Gillani announced the Pakistan national energy policy in 2010 while the feasibility report was submitted in Prime Minister's Secretariat — the official residence of prime minister of Pakistan. The PAEC are currently planning to lead the construction of KANUPP-II nuclear power plant — a 1100 MWe power plant — and the KANUPP-III — 1100 MWe. While the commercial plants will be indigenously built, the preliminary work is put on hold as of 2009. In 2010, the Nuclear Power Fuel Complex (PNPFC) — a nuclear reprocessing power plant — was commissioned. PAEC led the construction, designing, and maintenance of the facility, while China and IAEA provided funds to the facility. On 26 November 2013 prime minister Nawaz Sharif performed groundbreaking ceremony for two nuclear power plants with a combined capacity of 2200 MW near Karachi.

Pakistan nuclear power reactors[edit]

As of today, only four commercial nuclear power plants are currently operating. The following list provides information about current and future commercial nuclear power plants.

Nuclear power reactorsTypeLocationNet capacityConstruction startConnected to gridCommercial operation
CHASNUPP-I[15]PWR[15]Chasma, Punjab Province[15]300 MWe[15]1 August 1993[15]13 June 2000[15]15 September 2000[15]
CHASNUPP-II[16]PWR[16]Chasma, Punjab Province300 MWe[16]28 December 2005[16]14 March 2011[16]20 May 2011[16]
CHASNUPP-III[17]PWR[17]Chasma, Punjab Province[17]340 MWe[17]28 April 2009[1][17]17 Oct 2016[18]28 December 2016[19]
CHASNUPP-IV[17]PWR[17]Chasma, Punjab Province[17]340 MWe[17]2011[1]2017[1]N/A
CHASNUPP-VPWRChasma, Punjab Province1000 MWe20142020N/A
KANUPP-I[20]PHWRParadise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province90 MWe[20]1 August 1966[20]18 October 1971[20]7 December 1972[20]
KANUPP-II[21][22]PWR[21][22]Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province[21][22]1100 MWe[21][22]Construction has started, since 2013.[22][23]2020[21]2020
KANUPP-III[24]PWR[24]Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh Province[24]1100 MWe[24]Construction has started, along with KANUP III since 2013[25]2020[25]2020[25]
Muzaffargarh Nuclear Power ComplexPWRMuzaffargarh, Punjab1000 MWePAEC reportedly plans to install three Chinese nuclear reactors at Muzaffargarh and the site is now being prepared.[26]20202020

International co-operation[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]

Main article: People's Republic of China – Pakistan relations

The People's Republic of China has been a strong vocal and avid supporter of Pakistan's nuclear power generation programme from the early on. The history of Chinese-Pakistan cooperation dates back to the 1970s when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, as prime minister, first visited China. The strong academic interaction between Chinese and Pakistan scientists was begun in the 1970s. In 1986, the scientists from KRL and military engineers of Pakistan Army Engineering Corps built a HEU enrichment plant in Hanzhong province of PRC, and provided technical assistance to China in weapon-grade centrifuge technology for Chinese nuclear weapons. From the 1980s to the present, China has contracted with Pakistan to use of civil and electricity purpose use of nuclear technology.

As of 1990 contract, the second commercial nuclear power plant is CHASNUPP-I in Punjab—a 325 MWe PWR—supplied by China's CNNC under IAEA safeguards. The main part of the plant was designed by Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), based on Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. The commercial nuclear power plant began its operations May 2000. In 2005, China expanded its contract with Pakistan, and vowed to build more nuclear power plants in Pakistan. Construction of its twin, CHASNUPP-II, started in December 2005. It is reported to cost PkR 51.46 billion (US$860 million, with $350 million of this financed by China). In a meeting with IAEA, an IAEA safeguard agreement with PAEC and IAEA was signed in 2006, and the grid connection is expected in spring of 2011. The enriched fuel takes place in Pakistan's PNPFC facility, which is also under IAEA safeguards.

In 2005, both Pakistan government and the Chinese government adopted an Energy Security Plan, calling for a huge increase in generating capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030. Pakistan Government plans for lifting nuclear capacity to 8800 MWe, 900 MWe of it by 2015 and a further 1500 MWe by 2020.[27]

Plans included four further Chinese reactors of 300 MWe each and seven of 1000 MWe, all PWR. There were tentative plans for China to build two 1000 MWe PWR units at Karachi as KANUPP II and III, but China then in 2007 deferred development of its CNP-1000 type which is the only one able to be exported. However, Last November 2012, China rolled out its new advanced 1000 MW pressurised water nuclear power reactor, ACPR-1000 at the Hi-Tech Fair in Shenzhen. This reactor was "independently" developed by China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation with full IPR and made its debut at the 13th China Hi-Tech Fair, according to the official media. Since this reactor has been developed by China independently without the involvement of foreign suppliers, it is quite likely that China will export this reactor to Pakistan. PAEC is now currently preparing reports and planning to set up small but more commercial nuclear power plants indigenously.

In June 2008, the Pakistan Government announced plans to build commercial nuclear power plants III and IV commercial nuclear power plants at Chashma, Punjab Province, each with 320–340 MWe and costing PKR 129 billion, 80 billion of this from international sources, principally China. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the US–India agreement shortly preceding it. Cost quoted then was US$1.7 billion, with a foreign loan component of $1.07 billion.

In March 2009, SNERDI announced that it was proceeding with design of CHASNUPP-III and IV, with China Zhongyuan Engineering as the general contractor. The PAEC said Beijing was financing 85% of the US$1.6 billion project. Contracts for CHASNUPP-I and II were signed in 1990 and 2000, before 2004 when China joined the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), which maintains an embargo on sales of nuclear equipment to Pakistan, but there are questions about China's supply of Chasma-3 and 4. On 24 September 2010, China informed the IAEA that it will implement an agreement with Pakistan on the export of two nuclear reactors for Islamabad's Chashma nuclear complex. Beijing has said that the reactor deal is part of a 2003 agreement between the two countries, a claim many have questioned, though Germany has accepted.[28] These will be the third and fourth reactors at the complex. According to the Chinese communication to the IAEA, the reactors will be placed under international safeguards.[29] Concerns have been expressed over the lack the safety features incorporated into the Chashma-3 and Chashma-4 reactors, which are alleged to use a design which is not considered safe enough to build in China.[30]

In March 2013, Pakistan and China agreed to build a 1000 MW CHASNUPP-5 at Chashma Nuclear Power Complex.[31] In July 2013, it was announced that Pakistani officials were considering approval of KANUPP-2, a 1,000 megawatt reactor to be built with assistance from China.[32][33]

France[edit]

In May 2009, France agreed to cooperate with Pakistan on nuclear safety, which Pakistan's Foreign Minister called a 'significant development' related to the transfer of civilian nuclear technology to Pakistan. But later a spokesman for the French presidency was careful to rein in expectations, saying Mr Sarkozy had "confirmed France was ready, within the framework of its international agreements, to co-operate with Pakistan in the field of nuclear safety."[34] In October 2013, French Ambassador Philippe Thiebaud said "my country is ready to consider the request for enhancing civil nuclear cooperation in line with international obligations."[35]

United States[edit]

In a U.S.–Pakistan strategic dialogue on 24 March 2010, Pakistan pressed for a civil nuclear cooperation deal similar to that with India.[36] One analyst suggested that such a deal was unrealistic at present but might be possible in 10–15 years.[37]

Japan[edit]

In 2011, Dr. Irfan Yusuf Shami, the Director-General (Disarmament) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan and Makyo Maya Gawa, the Director-General of Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Department of the JapaneseMinistry of Foreign Affairs signed an agreement for nuclear non-proliferation in Tokyo. Both countries agreed on maintaining stability in South Asia.[38]

In 2011, during the state visit of PresidentAsif Zardari, Pakistan sought civil nuclear power cooperation with Japan, similarly to a previous deal between Japan and India. According to the Jang News group, the Japanese government refused the deal with Pakistan.[39] According to the Pakistan Media, the Pakistan officials were highly disappointed with Japanese denial. On the other hand, Japanese officials were left disappointed as Pakistan had denied the Japanese request to support Japan's candidacy for permanent seat for the United Nations Security Council.

Fuel cycle[edit]

The government has set a target of producing 350 tonnes (U3O8)per year from 2015 to meet one third of anticipated requirements then. Low grade Ore is known in central Punjab Province at Bannu Basin and Suleman Range.

A small (15,000 SWU/yr) uranium centrifuge enrichment plant at Kahuta has been operated by the KRL since 1984 and does not have any apparent civil use. It was expanded threefold about 1991. A newer plant is reported to be at Gadwal which is operated by PAEC. The plant is not under safeguards of IAEA.

In 2006, the PAEC announced that it was preparing to set up separate and purely civil conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants as a new US$1.2 billion Nuclear Power Fuel Complex which would be under IAEA safeguards and managed separately from existing facilities. At least the enrichment plant would be built at Chak Jhumra, Faisalabad, in the Punjab and have a 150,000 SWU/yr capacity in five years — about 2013, then be expanded in 150,000 SWU increments to be able to supply one third of the enrichment requirements for a planned 8800 MWe generating capacity by 2030.

Radioactive wastes management[edit]

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for the radioactive waste management. From 1972, the PAEC has undertaken to establish the safety objectives, management, and radioactive waste management.[40] In 2004, the PNRA issued guidelines for the management of nuclear and radioactive waste management in nuclear and medical research centers under PAEC.[41] In 2010, the PNRA issued regulatory policy on radioactive waste materials, and Pakistan lawmakers presented the regulatory policy in Pakistan Parliament. The Parliament passed the PNRA regulatory policy unanimously, making it into laws.[42]

The PNRA proposed new Waste Management offices to control of the radiation and radioactive materials. The Waste Management Centres are proposed for Karachi, Rawalpindi, Nilore, Lahore and Chashma. Used fuel is currently stored at each reactor in pools. Longer-term dry storage at each site is proposed. The question of future reprocessing remains open. A National Repository for low- and intermediate-level wastes is due to be commissioned by 2015.

Nuclear reprocessing[edit]

See also: Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor § PARR-III Reactor (New-Labs), and Khushab Nuclear Complex

The country also has operated one indigenous reprocessing plant, built by PAEC, which was known as the New Labs — outside PINSTECH, Nilore, near Islamabad.[43] The PAEC had contracted with British BNFL for a reprocessing facility which was cancelled in 1974. It was built under the leadership of Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan[44] The plant became functional in the early 1980s, and it is not under IAEA inspection. The second nuclear reprocessing plant was also started by PAEC under Munir Ahmad Khan, in 1976, at Chashma, under a contract agreement with France However, France cancelled the agreement for the said plant under US influence in August 1978 .[45] In 2006, the PAEC started work another nuclear fuel fabrication plant — Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex — located 175 kilometers south near Islamabad. An indigenous Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Complex at Kundian, known as Kundian Nuclear Fuel Complex (KNFC), already exists which was built by PAEC under Munir Ahmad Khan and completed by 1980. Kundian Nuclear Fuel Complex makes nuclear fuel for KANUPP. However, the 2006 PNPFC project is being financed by the joint Sino-Pak Nuclear Technology Consortium, and the PAEC is leading the designing and construction of the plant. It will be under safeguards but KNFC is not under safeguards.[46] The Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex is under the IAEA safeguards and inspections as the IAEA also contributed in the mega project financially.

Radiation control[edit]

Main articles: Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and China National Nuclear Corporation

The PAEC's directorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NSRC) was responsible for the radiation and high radioactive material control in the country. However, in 2001, with the establishment of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), the responsibilities were shifted to PNRA. In 2003, the responsibilities and agency's goals were expanded, as PNRA were given the status of an executive agency. The PNRA oversees reactor safety and security, reactor licensing and renewal, radioactive material safety, security and licensing, and spent fuel management (storage, security, recycling, and disposal).[47] The PNRA closely work with Chinese CNNC, and is frequently visited by Chinese staff as its technical advisers.

Nuclear accidents[edit]

Main article: Nuclear power accidents by country

On 18–19 October 2011, the KANUPP Karachi nuclear power plant imposed a seven-hour emergency after heavy water leaked from a feeder pipe to the reactor. The leakage took place during a routine maintenance shut down, and the emergency was lifted seven hours later, after the affected area was isolated.[48]

Industry and academic[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Nuclear Society

The Pakistan Nuclear Society (PNS) is a scientific and educational society that has both industry and academic members.[49] The organization publishes large amount of scientific literature on nuclear technology on several journals. The PNS also allied itself with American Nuclear Society (ANS), European Nuclear Society (ENS), Indian Nuclear Society (INS), Korean Nuclear Society (KNS), Chinese Nuclear Society (CNS), Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS), and the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNS).[50] The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission also published large sums of publication, and published a quarterly magazine — The Nucleus.[51] The PAEC's academic scientists and engineers also publishes the newsletter — The PakAtom — concerning on nuclear technology and lobbying for the commercial nuclear power plants.[52]

Academic research[edit]

See also: Project-706 § Proposals, and Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor

The academic research on nuclear technology began in 1956, with the establishment of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. In 1965, United States provided a 10 MWresearch reactor – Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor-I (PARR) – to Pakistan. The PARR-Reactor consists of three research reactors with a single nuclear particle accelerator. The first reactor was supplied by the U.S. government in 1965 and it is operated by the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). In 1969, the Center for Nuclear Studies was established, and it began its research in a small reactor that was provided by the PAEC. In 1989, the PAEC had built another small research reactor, known as Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor-II reactor. The PARR-II reactor is an indigenously built reactor by the PAEC, and is under IAEA safeguards since IAEA had funded this mega-project.

In 1986, another "multipurpose" heavy water reactor, a 50 MWepressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) near Khushab, was built. Known as Khushab-I, it went critical and started its operations in April 1998. The complex is evidently for producing weapons-grade plutonium, isotope production and nuclear reprocessing. A similar or possibly larger heavy water reactor has been under construction at Khushab since about 2002. Khushab is reported[by whom?] to be making demands upon the country's limited uranium resources. Reprocessing of weapon-grade material is reported[by whom?] to take place at Chashma Nuclear Complex, 80 km west.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcd(PAEC), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (12 May 2011). "Prime Minister inaugurates 340 MW Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-2: Govt to provide full support to PAEC for Nuclear Power Projects Urges International Community to make nuclear technology accessible to Pakistan for power generation". Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's Press Directorate. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Directorate for Public Press and International News Relations. [permanent dead link]
  2. ^Nuclear power in Pakistan, Dr. Zia H. Siddiqui and Dr. I.H. Qureshi, pp.31–33.
  3. ^(PAEC), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. "Nuclear Power Generation Programme". Government of Pakistan. PAEC. Archived from the original on 9 February 2005. Retrieved 2011. 
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