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Fritz Rienecker Bibliography Website

This bibliography represents a compilation of many of the resources quoted on preceptaustin.org. Updated May, 2015

BRIEF SUMMARY OF POPULAR
BIBLE SOFTWARE

Because the bibliographic listing does not mention every major Bible software product for each resource you will need to check the individual websites for available resources which are being added to continually...:

(1) Logos - This is the "Cadillac" of Bible software with over 20,000 resources available. The search engine is free, but the resources can be very expensive. Logos has a steep learning curve and requires a fast computer. If you have a blog or website be sure to consider adding the free Scripture popup tool - Reftagger - Official Site

(2) Wordsearch - Wordsearch and Logos are my favorite programs. Logos is "Wordsearch on steroids!" Wordsearch has a growing number of resources and is (1) generally (but not always) less expensive than Logos and (2) is easier to use. Wordsearch has partnered with Lifeway, so that it appears to be a program that is "here to stay".

(3) BibleWorks - This is my favorite tool for original language studies with a nice selection of add on lexicons. This is not the choice if you are looking for commentaries. I usually have this program opened to supplement my Logos and Wordsearch programs.

(4) TheWord Bible Program - Free program. In my opinion it rivals E-sword as best free program available. One nice feature is ability to scroll through verses which synch with all commentaries that have related notes. TheWord has most of the same resources (free) that are listed for E-Sword.

(5) E-Sword - Free program. For a general commentary of the entire Bible, I highly recommend David Guzik (Commentary on OT and NT). For one of the best (literal interpretation) commentaries available on the Revelation see Anthony Garland's book (Testimony of Jesus Christ).

(6) Online Study Bibles - Four are available and they are all very good.

(a) Holman Christian Standard Bible Study Bible - free

(b) Defender's Study Bible by Henry Morris - free

(c) NETBible Notes - free. Be sure to check this one out by reading the notes below. This is far more than a "study Bible" as you will discover.

(d) Reformation Study Bible Notes

(7) Online Study Resources - In my opinion the best sources of online resources are:

(a) Studylight.org - Bible Commentaries - largest selection on the web

(b) Biblehub.com- Has a few resources not found on Studylight

(c) Don't forget to check preceptaustin "Collections" on all 66 books of the Bible (see drop down list at top of page) - links to literally thousands of resources - commentaries, sermons, journal articles, devotionals

RELATED RESOURCES:

OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT
COMMENTARY COLLECTIONS
Also Sermons, Illustrations, Devotionals, etc

USAGE NOTES:
Words in blue indicate active links

Comments: Assessment and/or recommendation of the work.

Bible software: Name of company that produces resource on software

Website: Site where the resource is available on the web at no charge.

NA = Not Available

Note: For Logos software titles the best resource is Logos.com.

If you are interested in "old fashioned" (paper!) books, I recommend searching Amazon.com where you can search for used copies available (usually only a fraction of the cost of the new book -- I have purchased up to 50 used Christian books from Amazon and have yet to be disappointed -- just be sure to read the seller's notes on the condition of the book.

Be aware that many of the Christian writings prior to the early 1900's are now available online at no charge. I have found the Archive.org invaluable in this regard. It takes some practice but you will be amazed at what is now online at Archive.org. For example, just to get some idea of the amount of material which is online enter Spurgeon and under media type select Texts (otherwise you will get audios, etc) to retrieve over 350 resources!

Ash, A. L. Philippians, Colossians & Philemon. The College Press NIV commentary. Joplin, Mo.: College Press. (1994)

Comments: The College Press NIV Commentary series is a reasonably good commentary but I would recommend using it only as a secondary resource to supplement a more classic work such as Bible Knowledge Commentary

Bible software: Logos,Wordsearch

Website: NA

Barclay, William. The Daily study Bible series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

Comments: Barclay's commentaries are not always theologically conservative (note) and/or evangelical but they do contain some of the best cultural and historical insights available as well as some excellent Greek word studies. Barclay did not hold orthodox views concerning such non-negotiable topics such as the virgin birth of Jesus, the deity of Jesus, the way of salvation, eternal judgment, et al. A balanced evaluation of Barclay's theological aberrations is found here and the cautious student is advised to read this review before utilizing his commentaries.

Bible software: The New Daily Study Bible New Testament - Logos

Website: William Barclay's Daily Study Bible

Barnes, Albert. Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Comments: Notes on the Old and New Testament can be a useful supplemental resource. C H Spurgeon's comments that:

"Albert Barnes is a learned and able divine, but his productions are unequal in value, the gospels are of comparatively little worth, but his other comments are extremely useful for Sunday School teachers and persons with a narrow range of reading, endowed with enough good sense to discriminate between good and evil. If a controversial eye had been turned upon Barnes's Notes years ago, and his inaccuracies shown up by some unsparing hand, he would never have had the popularity which at one time set rival publishers advertising him in every direction. His Old Testament volumes are to be greatly commended as learned and laborious, and the epistles are useful as a valuable collection of the various opinions of learned men. Placed by the side of the great masters, Barnes is a lesser light, but taking his work for what it is and professes to be, no minister can afford to be without it, and this is no small praise for works which were only intended for Sunday School teachers. (from Commenting and Commentaries by CH Spurgeon)

Bible software: Available free from "e-sword". Barnes' Notes on the New Testament free from Wordsearch

Website: Studylight has notes on the NT;

Barton, B. B. Life Application Bible Commentary: Romans, Philippians, Colossians, et al. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers.

Comments: Well done, conservative, evangelical and as you might gather from the name usually with good applications.

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch,

Website: NA

Book Version: James. Life Application Bible Commentary. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers

Bible Knowledge Commentary:An Exposition of the Scriptures. Walvoord, J. F. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

Comments: This is a "modern classic" which is thoroughly conservative and evangelical. It is recommended as one of the basic commentaries for your library.

Bible software: Logos,Wordsearch, E-Sword

Website: NA

Black, A. 1 & 2 Peter. The College Press NIV commentary. Joplin, Mo: College Press Pub. (1998)

Comments: The College Press NIV Commentary series is a reasonably good commentary but I would recommend using it only as a secondary resource to supplement a more classic work such as Bible Knowledge Commentary

Bible software: Logos,Wordsearch

Website: NA

Calvin, John: Commentariess

Comments: Classic reformed commentary but be wary of his comments on prophetic passages in the Old Testament.

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch

Website: Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Carson, D. A. New Bible Commentary: Downers Grove, Ill., USA: Inter-Varsity Press. (1994)

Comments: Not good enough to be your primary single volume commentary on the entire Bible (see MacDonald's Believer's Bible Commentary or the Bible Knowledge Commentary, both of which are better commentaries on the entire Bible). This should be a secondary resource.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Clarke, Adam: Clarke's Commentary

Comments: Adam Clarke (1760-1832) is the author of a commentary on the entire Bible that is found on many websites as well as computer Bible programs. Clarke was a Methodist, a Wesleyan, and an Arminian, (e.g., Clarke "suggested that although God can know all future events, He chooses not to know some events beforehand" Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, page 808). He did not always interpret Scripture literally and thus not surprisingly was amillennial (did not believe Messiah would reign 1000 years in His earthly Kingdom - he interpreted Revelation as a Historicist) which led him to misinterpret the church as fulfilling many Old Testament promises given to and yet to be fulfilled to Israel. He was influential in the development of the doctrine of entire sanctification. Although Clarke affirmed the authority and sufficiency of Scripture, thus holding to a belief of "plenary dynamic inspiration" (idea of every thought inspired), he fell short of a belief in the "plenary verbal inspiration" (every single word inspired) (Bibliotheca Sacra: Volume 125, p 163, 1968). Click for full discussion of Clarke's interpretative approach.

Bible software: E-sword as well as most commercial software programs

Website: Studylight

Cottrell, J.Romans : Vol 1. College Press NIV commentary. Volume 2. Joplin, Mo.: College Press Pub (1996-c1998)

Comments: The College Press NIV Commentary series is a reasonably good commentary but I would recommend using it as a secondary resource to supplement an excellent commentary such as MacArthur's Commentary on Romans

Bible software: Logos,Wordsearch

Website: NA

Craigie, P. C. Ezekiel. The Daily Study Bible Series. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Comments: Interesting and well written commentary. The Daily Study Bible series on the Old Testament (the counterpart to William Barclay's Daily Study Bible Series on the New Testament) like the NT counterpart can have some useful discussions but is not conservative nor literal in interpretative approach and thus should be used with considerable discernment.

Bible software: Not available as of Feb, 2012.

Website: NA

The New Defender's Study Bible by Henry M Morris

Comments: The comments are brief but this is one of the best Study Bibles available because of Morris' stalwart adherence to a literal interpretation of the Scriptures. If you are not familiar with his work (e.g., commentaries such as The Genesis Record and The Revelation Record), you won't be disappointed if you are looking for a conservative resource that has short comments on the entire Bible. Note that there are not comments on every verse.

Comment from the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) website: "In 1995 Dr. Henry Morris, ICR's founder, released The Defender's Study Bible, a study Bible "defending" all Scripture passages which had come under attack, and presenting creation and inerrancy as foundational doctrines of Christianity. Many consider this his life's work, containing the results of 50 years of Bible study and belief. Over 6,400 explanatory notes and 18 appendices aid the reader in understanding even the difficult passages, especially those which deal with the vital doctrine of creation. Now he has added 3,000 more notes and two new appendices to increase its value and usability."

Bible software: None

Website: Defender's Study Bible Notes free online- Excellent, conservative, literal study Bible notes from a leading Creationist. Instructions: (1) Enter book name and chapter. (2) Select "Only the Defender's Notes". (3) Press "Search". Additional Notes: (a) Books that begin with a number (eg. 1, 2 Timothy, etc) must have a space between the number and name (e.g., "2 Timothy 1" retrieves hits but "2Timothy 1" returns no results). (b) Searches of first chapter of any book will also retrieve Dr Morris' introductory comments on that book.

Discipleship Journal

Comments: Practical articles on living out your Christian faith, calling us all to a walk of holiness. I would recommend buying one of the software versions which makes all 150 volumes fully searchable.

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch

Website: Discipleship Journal

Elwell, W. A. Evangelical Commentary on the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House

Comments: Single volume commentary on the entire Bible. If you are considering buying a modern single volume, William MacDonald's Believer's Bible Commentary (below) is recommended.

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch - Note that Wordsearch title is "Baker Commentary on the Bible" but this identical to the Logos version by a different name. Interesting!

Website: NA

ESV Study Bible - Crossway (2008)

Comments: Excellent study Bible. If you purchase the book, you have access to the web edition.

Jerry Bridges writes "“The ESV Study Bible is the finest study tool I have seen in fifty years of Bible teaching. The notes, articles, maps, and illustrations are all of the highest quality. It is a great achievement!”

R Albert Mohler writes: "The ESV Study Bible is a treasure—a beautiful volume, filled with a wealth of resources. It will be just as useful for the seminarian and long-time pastor as it will be accessible to the brand-new Christian."

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: ESVBible.org

Exell, Joseph, Editor: The Biblical Illustrator: (1887)

Comments: 55 Volume, 34,752 page work. If you do expositional preaching or teaching, you will definitely benefit from the many illustrative comments from multiple sources.

Bible software:

Website: Biblical Illustrator

Gaebelein, F, et al: Expositor's Bible Commentary: Old and New Testament (12 Volumes)

Comments: One of the better conservative, evangelical Bible commentaries covering both the Old and New Testament. It is more detailed than the two volume Bible Knowledge Commentary. A free alternative is David Guzik's commentary below.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Garland, Anthony: A Testimony of Jesus Christ (Commentary on the Revelation)

Comments: Recommended for any serious study of the Revelation. Does a nice job of discussing alternative views but the main focus is verse by verse commentary from a conservative, futuristic (literal) viewpoint. A Testimony of Jesus Christ is one of the best commentaries that has ever been written on the Revelation. Garland's well researched, straightforward approach will help you unravel the truth of this wonderful book, which far too often has been confounded by commentaries that stray from a literal interpretative view of Scripture. See related topic Revelation Commentaries which includes listing of commentaries categorized by their interpretative approach:

Bible software: View the HTML version of the commentary online. Also available in printable Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format,

Website: See Revelation Commentaries on Preceptaustin - Links are primarily to resources that hold to a literal interpretation of God's Word, but there is a list of non-literal commentaries.

Gill, John: John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible:

Comments: Lengthy comments on Scripture using Scripture as the main source of the commentary. As with all "older vintage" commentaries, although Gill is conservative, his comments tend not to be literal (and futuristic) in his interpretation of Old Testament prophetic passages, which are better handled by modern commentaries (such as Guzik below). Spurgeon has this to say concerning Gill:

"Beyond all controversy, Gill was one of the most able Hebraists (interpreters of Hebrew resources) of his day, and in other matters no mean (no less) proficient...Probably no man since Gill's days has at all equaled him in the matter of Rabbinical learning. Say what you will about that lore, it has its value: of course, a man has to rake among perfect dunghills and dust heaps, but there are a few jewels which the world could not afford to miss. Gill was a master cinder sifter among the Targums, the Talmuds, the Mishna, and the Gemara...He was always at work; it is difficult to say when he slept, for he wrote 10,000 folio pages of theology...He is far from being so interesting and readable as Matthew Henry...For good, sound, massive, sober sense in commenting, who can excel Gill? Very seldom does he allow himself to be run away with by imagination, except now and then when he tries to open up a parable, and finds a meaning in every circumstance and minute detail; or when he falls upon a text which is not congenial with his creed, and hacks and hews terribly to bring the word of God into a more systematic shape."

Bible software: E-sword, TheWord

Website: Studylight (free)

Guzik, David: Commentary on the Whole Bible (except a few books)

Comments: Recommended conservative brief verse by verse commentary on most of the Bible. Guzik is one of the few entire Bible commentaries from a contemporary writer which is freely available on the internet. The comments on prophecy are definitely conservative, evangelical and literal. A good guide to determine whether a given author interprets Scripture literally, is to read their comments on Revelation 20, specifically regarding the "1000 years" mentioned six times (eg read Guzik's notes on Revelation 20)

Bible software: CD from Enduring Word Media; Free book for Libronix (not for Logos 4 as of Feb, 2012) at Stilltruth.com; Free download for E-sword

Website: Studylight

Haldane, Robert: An Exposition of Romans

Comments: Classic commentary. Can be a bit wordy and often less practical than a more modern commentary such as John MacArthur's commentary on Romans.

Website: See Links by Chapter - Romans

Harris, R. L.Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press.

Comments: This two volume set is one of the best resources available (along with that by Zodhiates below) for scholarly and yet not overly technical Hebrew word studies. There are more and better definitions than Vine's OT Lexicon.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Henry, Matthew: Commentary on the Whole Bible (1700's) This resource is also available free for download from "".

Comments: Well done classic, conservative and devotional comments on all of Scripture. As with all "older vintage" commentaries, Henry's comments tend not to be literal (and futuristic) in his interpretation of Old Testament prophetic passages, which are better handled by modern commentaries (such as Guzik above). Henry occasionally misinterprets literal OT promises to Israel as fulfilled in the NT church.

Bible software: Widely available

Website: Studylight

Hiebert, D. Edmond Commentaries: Gospel of Mark, 1, 2 Thes, 1, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, James, 1, 2 Peter, 1-3 John

Comments: Hiebert’s use of the Greek language and insightful comments make anything by this author of use for pastors, teachers or for anyone who studies the Word in depth. Hiebert has other works on Mark, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, James, epistles of John. In short, his commentaries are highly recommended!

John Walvoord - "While our generation has produced many notable scholars, few have achieved excellence in writing biblical commentaries from the standpoint of evangelical theology. The tendency has been in religious literature to discuss the views of men rather than the inspired Word of God. Dr. D. Edmond Hiebert has manifested extraordinary gifts as a leading scholar in the field of biblical exegesis. In his writings he has shown thorough research, a comprehensive review of pertinent literature, and, more importantly, a penetrating discernment of the precise meaning of the scriptural text. He has combined depth in scholarship with practical application and has manifested an ability to communicate the results of his study in an understandable way. His works have benefited both the scholar and the lay reader and have served to provide a solid basis for interpreting Scripture for a generation which has deviated more from biblical truth than any generation in the past. God has raised up men such as Dr. Hiebert to provide a sure word in an age that is groping for eternal truth."

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch

Hodge, C. Romans. Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 1835

Comments: Classic conservative commentary on Romans. Can be a bit wordy sometime and therefore often less practical than for example modern works such as John MacArthur's commentary on Romans (see below).

Bible software: Logos ; Wordsearch

Website: Chapter by Chapter

Holman Christian Standard Bible -Study Bible (HCSB Study Bible)

Comments: Enter Scripture. Study notes synch with Scripture. Mouse over underlined words pops up the Greek or Hebrew word. Activate this feature by selecting the "Alpha & Omega" Icon on bar above the Scripture. Notice that under the "Study Bible Notes Tool" if you click "Read" the notes are now visible in the middle (scrollable) window which includes any pictures or tables that might be present. The HCSB is a very well done, literal translation.

Hughes, R. K. Colossians and Philemon: The supremacy of Christ. Crossway (1989)
Hughes, R. K.Hebrews: Vol 1 & 2: An Anchor for the Soul: Preaching the Word (1993)
Hughes, R. K. Romans : Righteousness from heaven. (1991)

Comments: Well written conservative commentary with frequent interesting illustrations and practical applications.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

IVP New Testament Commentary Series: Towner, P. 1-2 Timothy & Titus. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

Comments: Reasonably good commentary but tends to be wordy and sometimes hard to follow.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: Select books (Matthew, Luke, John, Acts, 2Cor, Gal, Php, Col, 1Tim, 1John, 2John, 3John, Revelation) are available free -see links at Intervarsity Press Commentaries

Jamieson, R., Fausset, A. R. & Brown, D. A Commentary, Critical & Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments.

Comments: Relatively brief verse by verse comments. As with all "older vintage" commentaries, although generally conservative, the comments are not always literal (and futuristic) in interpretation of Old Testament prophetic passages, which are better handled by modern commentaries (such as Guzik above). That said, of the pre-1900 commentaries, JFB is probably one of the better in interpretation of prophetic writings.

C H Spurgeon wrote that JFB is "to some extent a compilation and condensation of other men's thoughts, but it is sufficiently original to claim a place in every minister's library: indeed it contains so great a variety of information that if a man had no other exposition he would find himself at no great loss if he possessed this and used it diligently."

Bible software: Widely available

Website: Studylight

Keener, C. S. The IVP Bible background commentary : New Testament. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press. (1993)

Comments: Interesting background insights.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Keil & Delitzsch: Commentary on the Old Testament.

Comments: A classic commentary covering the entire Old Testament, but not always conservative or literal.

James Rosscup writes that "This is the best older, overall treatment of a critical nature on the Old Testament Hebrew text verse by verse and is a good standard work to buy. The student can buy parts or the whole of this series. Sometimes it is evangelical, at other times liberal ideas enter." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Bible software: Widely available

Website: Commentary

King James Version Study Bible (Radmacher, E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. (1997). The Nelson study Bible : New King James Version) Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Comments: Well done notes on all Bible

Bible software: Logos

Website: NA

KJV Bible commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Comments: Well done notes on all Bible

Bible software: Logos

Website: NA

Lenski, R. The Interpretation of 1 & 2 Epistles of Peter, the Three Epistles of John, and the Epistle of Jude. Ausburg Publishing. (1966)

Comments: Well known, respected Lutheran commentator. Warren Wiersbe's favorite NT commentary.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Lightfoot, J. B. Colossians and Philemon. The Crossway Classic Commentaries. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books. (1996)

Comments: Classic commentary. Selectively useful

Bible software: Logos

Website: Free at Archive.org - Galatians, Philippians, Colossians & Philemon

Louw, Johannes & Nida, Eugene: Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament based on Semantic Domains.

Comments: Well done Greek lexicon which supplements a more complete lexicon like Zodhiates' (see below) or BDAG (Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature).

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

MacArthur, John: Commentaries on Multiple NT Books including: Romans, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Timothy , 2 Timothy, Titus.Hebrews Chicago: Moody Press.

Comments: One of the leading expositors of the Scripture in the 21st century. You will always be edified and equipped by Dr. MacArthur's sound Scripturally saturated exposition.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Book Source: Matthew in 4 Volumes: Highly recommended (computer or book): Matthew 1-7 Macarthur New Testament Commentary Chicago: Moody Press, Matthew 8-15, Matthew 16-23, Matthew 24-28

MacArthur, John. The MacArthur Study Bible: Thomas Nelson (1997)

Comments: The best study Bible available in my opinion. Highly recommended.

Bible software: Wordsearch

Website: NA

MacDonald, William & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Old and New Testaments. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Comments: Highly recommended. One of the best single volume commentaries available covering both the Old and New Testament. Thoroughly conservative, literal, evangelical, and devotional. This resource is an excellent companion to the MacArthur Study Bible.

John MacArthur says: "...concise yet comprehensive - the most complete single-volume commentary I have seen."

Warren Wiersbe says that this commentary is "...for the student who is serious about seeing Christ in the Word."

Bible software: Logos; E-Sword

Website: NA

McGee, J. Vernon. Thru the Bible Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Comments: Highly Recommended. Pithy, practical, conservative comments on every book of the Bible.

Bible software: Logos

Website: Mp3's of Thru the Bible are free - List of Books by Individual Tracks

Maclaren, Alexander: Expositions of Holy Scripture (1826-1910)

Comments: Maclaren was one of Great Britain's most notable and famous preachers. Maclaren published a number of books of sermons and climaxed his ministry by publishing his monumental Expositions of Holy Scripture which consists of expository essays covering most books of the Bible and are characterized by a devotional flavor. While pastoring the Union Chapel, Manchester (1858-1903), he was known as "the prince of expository preachers." If you are not familiar with Maclaren's style, click here for a few of his quotes to wet your appetite (or read his exposition Jehovah Jireh based on Genesis 22:14):

Bible software: Widely available

Website: Studylight.org

Marshall, I. H. 1 Peter. The IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press. (1991).

Comments: The College Press NIV Commentary series is a reasonably good commentary but I would recommend using it only as a secondary resource to supplement a more classic work such as Bible Knowledge Commentary

Bible software: Logos

Website: NA

Meyer, F B The Epistle to the Philippians. E-Sword Step program from Heritage Educational Systems.

Comments: Devotional commentary.

Bible software: E-sword

Website: Online at preceptaustin.org

Mills, M. Ruth: A Study Guide to the Book of Ruth . Dallas: 3E Ministries

Comments: NA

Bible software: Logos

Website: NA

Mounce, R. H.Romans. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

Comments: Conservative, evangelical. A reasonably good commentary but in my opinion not the best as it is often too verbose.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

NET Bible notes: Study notes and much more in the free online version (see instructions below)!

Comments: These tend to be more technical notes on the New English Translation, but you will often discover some very useful insights. The NET Bible is synchronized with the NET Notes, Constable's Commentary and relevant articles on the Bible.org website. Very helpful!

Bible software: Logos; e-Sword; Wordsearch

Website: NetBible

Newell, William: Romans Verse by Verse (published 1938) N

Comments: Recommended. An excellent, generally conservative, expositional and devotional commentary.

Bible software: Multiple

Website: Studylight

New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament, The by Fritz Rienecker, Cleon L., III Rogers

Comments: Brief comments on Greek word meanings. Knowledge of Greek is not a prerequisite. Occasionally you will find some real "treasures" in these short definitions.

Bible software: Book on Amazon.com

Website: NA

Pink, A W Expositions on numerous Old and New Testament books (1886-1952)

Comments: Pink's expositional and devotional commentaries can be an excellent resource with the caveat that the reader be cognizant of Pink's tendency toward a supernaturalistic approach in interpretation (See brief discussion at Interpretation of God's Word) See link to Pink.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: Pink's Archive

Piper, John. Desiring God Ministries

Comments: One of the finest expositors of Scripture in the 20-21st Century. He is always worth consulting.

Bible software: Wordsearch; Logos

Website: Link to John Piper's extensive online library of sermons which includes most of his books available as a free Pdf download.

Pfeiffer, C. F. The Wycliffe Bible commentary: Old and New Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. (1962)

Comments: Well done theologically conservative resource covering the Old and New Testament in one volume. Named as one of the 850 Books for Biblical Expositors by the Master's Seminary.

Bible software: Logos ; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Pulpit Commentary by H. D. M. Spence and Joseph S. Exell

Comments: Brief verse by verse comments plus homilies (sermons). Although the Pulpit Commentary (PC) is impressive in size, one must be discerning especially in interpretation of the Old Testament, as the PC frequently misinterprets the promises that were addressed primarily to Israel as promises that apply to the New Testament Church. E.g., in the PC's comments on Isaiah, the word "church" is mentioned 827 times despite the fact that the word "church" is not found once in the Old Testament! Paul's "commentary" accurately states that the "church" was "the mystery which has been hidden from the past ages [including the age of Isaiah]" (Colossians 1:26-note)! In another example, the PC has only a single mention of the "millennium" in Isaiah and even this comment is not accurate. By contrast, the conservative, literal Bible Knowledge Commentary mentions the church 4 times and the millennium 52 times in its much more concise commentary on Isaiah. Click for a specific example of misinterpretation from the Pulpit Commentary.

Bible software: Logos, E-sword, TheWord

Website: Pulpit Commentaries

Radmacher, E. D.Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary. Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers. (1999) (Note: Identical to Nelson's NKJV
Study Bible)

Comments: Brief well worded conservative comments.

Bible software: Logos

Website: NA

Richards, Lawrence O:

The Teacher's Commentary. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books. (1987)

The Bible Reader's Companion (BRC) Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.

The 365 Day Devotional Commentary. (365) Wheaton, Victor Books

Expository Dictionary of Bible Words. Zondervan(New Name for this work = New International Encyclopedia of Bible Words)

Comments: The Teacher's Commentary is reasonably good but comments are not on every verse nor do they tend to be very detailed. The entire Bible—Genesis 1 to Revelation 22—is divided into teachable units. There are many "link-to-life" ideas to help teach each unit to any age group.

BRC is reasonably good but comments are not on every verse nor do they tend to be very detailed. BRC does provide introductions and outlines, summaries, cross-references, definitions, explanations of difficult passages, archeological reports, Bible customs, charts, realistic art, and much more!

365 Day Devotional is reasonably good but comments are not on every verse nor do they tend to be very detailed. Each day you will find a core passage of scripture with devotional commentary, a personal application, and a quote from a well-known Christian.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Robertson, A. T. Word Pictures in the New Testament

Comments: A classic test on the original Greek language covering all NT books. The comments are brief but occasionally give very useful insights into how a word was used in the original Greek language.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: Studylight

Ryrie, Charles: The Ryrie Study Bible

Comments: Brief comments on select verses. Conservative. Evangelical. Especially good on prophetic passages (if you hold to the literal approach to interpretation of the Scriptures!)

Bible software: Wordsearch; Logos

Website: NA

Stedman, Ray. The Ray Stedman Library.Ray C. Stedman Memorial Home Page

Comments: If you are not familiar with Ray Stedman's material, now is the time. It is always conservative and filled with practical comments and applications. Highly recommended.

Bible software: The complete Ray C. Stedman Library plus 67 messages in MP3 format is available on a free CD from Firefighters for Christ

Website: The Ray C. Stedman Library; Commentary Page; Online Books; Mp3 Index

10,000 Sermon Illustrations CD

Comments: Excellent sermon illustrations indexed by topic and by Scripture.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: Sermon Illustrations - Bible.org

Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Comments: A classic resource for those doing in depth Greek word studies.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Theological Journal Library

Comments: An incredible product that gives you a veritable seminary library (including journals from multiple different seminaries) on your computer.

Bible software: Only in Wordsearch (Logos offers a different product)

Website: Yes, and there is an annual $50 fee [click] required to view the entire journal article this fee gives you access to literally thousands of conservative articles that are searchable by topic and by Scripture - an incredible resource for serious study (recommended)

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament , Harris, R. L., Harris, R. L., Archer, G. L., & Waltke, B. K. (1999, c1980). Chicago: Moody Press.

Comments: This is the best resource available for the lay person who cannot read Hebrew. Highly Recommended for anyone interested in original word studies.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: How to Perform a Hebrew Word Study Using Web Resources

Greek Word Studies - 2000 as of May, 2015

Hebrew Word Studies - over 400 as of May, 2015

UBS: Helps for translators; UBS handbook series: Bratcher, R. G., & Nida, E. A. (1993], c1977). New York: United Bible Societies.

Comments: Verse by verse analysis with emphasis on translation the original language into English. Often has some interesting insights but it is not strictly speaking a commentary.

Bible software: Logos - Old and New Testament

Website: NA

Vincent, M. R.: Word Studies in the New Testament

Comments: Greek Word Studies. A classic. Does not cover every NT book as does A T Robertson's Word Pictures. Often has insights found no where else.

Bible software: Logos; E-sword; Wordsearch

Website: Studylight

Vine, W. E.The Collected Writings of W. E. Vine. Thomas Nelson

Comments: This collection is a real "sleeper" because it includes Vine's well done commentaries (rich with Greek word study comments as one might expect). Here is a list of the included works and commentaries (many are verse by verse exposition) ---

Critique of W E Vine by F F Bruce (interesting!), Isaiah, The Leading Themes of the Gospels (10 chapters representing a series of papers-The Prologue of the Gospel, Christ as the Word, Christ as the Light, Christ as the Life, Christ the Sent One, The Subject of Believing, Witnesses to Christ, Divine Love, The Death of Christ, The Holy Spirit), John, Romans, 1Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Hebrews, Outline Studies in the Epistle of James, 1, 2 and 3 John, The Person and Work of Christ, The Whole Gospel, The Church, Missions and Christian Service, The Second Coming and the Last Days, The Evolution Theory in the Light of Genesis, Spiritism Unmasked.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Vine, W. E. Vine'sComplete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville: T

Comments: One of the classic lexicons and often quoted or paraphrased by commentators and pastors alike. Makes a good companion to the more exhaustive Zodhiates' dictionary. Add Wuest, Vincent's and A T Robertson and you have a nice group of books for performing Greek word studies.

Bible software: (see preceding note on "Collected Writings"); Logos, Wordsearch

Website: NT; Old Testament

Greek Word Studies - 2000 as of May, 2015

Hebrew Word Studies - over 400 as of May, 2015

Wall, R. W. Colossians & Philemon. The IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press. (1993).

Comments: The College Press NIV Commentary series is a reasonably good commentary but I would recommend using it only as a secondary resource to supplement a more classic work such as Bible Knowledge Commentary

Bible software: Logos

Website: Intervarsity Press Commentaries

Walvoord, J. F. The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. A

Comments: One of the modern classics with separate single volumes on the Old and New Testaments. This belongs in every student's library, whether in print or on the computer.

Bible software: Logos, Wordsearch

Website: Free Online works by Dr John Walvoord, including his complete books on Daniel, Revelation, etc - highly recommended if you are studying prophetic literature!

Wiersbe, W. W. The Bible Exposition Commentary. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books
Wiersbe, W. W: Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books
Wiersbe, W. W: Be Committed. An Old Testament Study. Ruth and Esther Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books

Comments: Excellent commentary on the NT books. If Wiersbe has written something on a given verse, his comments are always worth checking. The Expository Outlines offer brief but meaty comments that do not duplicate Wiersbe's Bible Exposition Commentary.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

 

Website: NA

Word Biblical Commentary: Multi-volume set: Old and New Testament: Word Biblical Commentary Dallas: Word, Incorporated.

Comments: Detailed commentary but not always conservative, literal and evangelical. This is a secondary resource that must be used with discernment.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: NA

Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament : For the English Reader. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Comments: One of the best Greek word studies tools available and also has an excellent commentary on select books. Highly recommended.

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: Galatians Commentary; Philippians Commentary

Zodhiates, S. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament and Old Testament Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers.

Comments: This is a excellent Greek and Hebrew word study (along with TWOT).

Bible software: Logos; Wordsearch

Website: See How to Perform a Greek Word Study

Greek Word Studies - 2000 as of May, 2015

Hebrew Word Studies - over 400 as of May, 2015

BIBLES QUOTED
ON THIS WEBSITE

Click chartcomparing Literalness of Various Versions

ALTAnalytical-Literal Translation. Available on E-Sword
AMPAmplified: Scripture quotations taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987 by The Lockman Foundation Used by permission. (www.Lockman.org)
ASVAmerican Standard Version (1901) Available on E-Sword
BBEBible in Basic English: No obvious copyright stated.
BrentonEnglish translation of the Lxx (Septuagint). Available on E-Sword
CEVContemporary English Version. Available on E-Sword
DNTDarby's New Testament Available on E-Sword
DRBDouay-Rheims Bible Available on E-Sword
ESVEnglish Standard Version: Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
GWTGod's Word Translation is a copyrighted work of God's Word to the Nations. Quotations are used by permission.
HCSBHolman Christian Standard Bible: Copyright © 2002 by Holman Bible Publishers, Nashville Tennessee. All rights reserved.
ICBInternational Children's Bible
ISVInternational Standard Bible. Available on E-Sword
NASBNew American Standard Bible: Scripture quotations taken from the New American Standard Bible®,Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973,1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation Used by permission.
LITVLiteral Translation. Available on E-Sword
LXXSeptuagint (Greek Translation of the Hebrew Old Testament). Available on E-Sword
MKJVModern KJV. Available on E-Sword
NJB

The southern Amazon, which covers 30–40% of Amazonia, is a transitional region between tropical rainforests to the north and west and subtropical savanna and agricultural lands to the south and east (Fig. 1). Rainforests in this region, which play an important role in the global carbon cycle (1), are vulnerable to slight decreases in annual rainfall or increases in dry season length (2). This vulnerability is exacerbated by large-scale agricultural land use. The southern Amazon dry season has lengthened in recent decades, primarily due to delays in wet season onset (3). Model simulations suggest that continuation of this trend could trigger an abrupt transition of rainforest to savanna (2, 4), which would substantially reduce dry season rainfall over the southern Amazon and downwind agricultural regions (5, 6).

Rainforest vitality is known to depend on rainfall amount and dry season length (2, 7⇓–9), but major knowledge gaps remain regarding rainforest influences on wet season onset. Rainforest evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for 30–50% of regional rainfall (10⇓⇓–13), but it is unclear whether ET actively modifies or merely responds to rainfall seasonality. Credible assessments of land use contributions to recent increases in dry season length and the frequency of extreme droughts in this region (14, 15) require these gaps to be filled.

The Deep Convection Moisture Pump

Wet season onset in the tropics is generally associated with either monsoon reversals in the land–ocean temperature gradient or north–south migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), both of which are driven by seasonal changes in the distribution of solar radiation. However, wet season onset over the southern Amazon precedes the southward migration of the Atlantic ITCZ by 2–3 mo (16) and occurs without a reversal in the land–ocean surface temperature gradient (17, 18). Conventional mechanisms therefore cannot explain wet season onset over the southern Amazon. An alternative hypothesis holds that late dry season increases in rainforest transpiration may increase surface air humidity and buoyancy (18, 19). Lifting of this humid near-surface air by cold fronts moving northward from midlatitude South America (20) could cause large-scale increases in deep convection and upper-level heating (21), thereby initiating moisture transport from the tropical Atlantic. Large-scale moisture transport reinforces the conditions that favor deep convection, ultimately leading to wet season onset. We refer to this transition mechanism as the deep convective moisture pump (DCMP).

The exact processes that activate the DCMP have been unclear. Cold front incursions are strongest during the dry season (22), but deep convection is rare until lower tropospheric humidity rises late in the transition season (21). Moistening of the lowest 4 km of the atmosphere (pressures 600–700 hPa) therefore emerges as the likely key to activating the DCMP (23, 24). The source of this moisture and the processes by which moistening occurs have profound implications for understanding how land use and biomass burning affect the seasonal cycle of rainfall. For example, deforestation might sharpen the land–ocean temperature gradient (accelerating wet season onset under a conventional onset mechanism), but would also reduce surface moisture fluxes (delaying wet season onset under an ET-initiated onset mechanism).

To clarify the mechanisms involved in activating the DCMP, the first question that must be answered is whether the late dry season increase in lower tropospheric humidity primarily derives from rainforest transpiration or advection from the ocean. Previous studies on this topic have been overwhelmingly based on reanalysis products that combine available observations with numerical model simulations. These products are heavily influenced by the behavior of the underlying model in data-poor regions like Amazonia. Inadequate treatments of surface hydrology, vegetation, and turbulent mixing near the top of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) lead to large uncertainties in reanalysis estimates of ET, rainfall, and moisture flux convergence (MFC) (25). For example, the increase in rainfall over the southern Amazon during the dry-to-wet season transition occurs 2–3 wk earlier in the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) than in observations (SI Text). Enhanced rainfall and associated heating in the atmosphere directly affect reanalysis estimates of ET and MFC, potentially confounding moisture source attributions based on reanalysis products. In situ observations indicate that maximum ET leads the late dry season increase in rainfall (26⇓–28); however, it has been unclear whether modest increases in ET can contribute sufficient moisture above the ABL at regional scales. The potential influences of aerosols on the dry-to-wet season transition are an additional source of uncertainty (29), because the aerosol climatologies used by most reanalyses neglect or underestimate seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol loading in this region (30, 31). It is therefore necessary to examine the dry-to-wet season transition by using observable quantities.

SI Text

Data Processing and Generation of Composites.

All analyzed fields are area-weighted spatial averages over the southern Amazon domain, defined as the area bounded by 5°S to 15°S and 50°W to 70°W (Fig. 1). Variables are averaged into discrete 5-d periods (pentads), where the first pentad of each year corresponds to 1–5 January, the second to 6–10 January, and so on. The annual cycle of each variable is then composited relative to wet season onset for each individual year, where wet season onset is defined as the first 5-d period for which (i) the rain rate exceeded the climatological mean; (ii) the rain rate in at least five of the eight preceding pentads was less than the climatological mean; and (iii) the rain rate in at least five of the eight subsequent pentads was greater than the climatological mean (19). Onset-relative composite time series are then constructed by averaging across years for the 40 pentads before onset and the 40 pentads after onset over six wet season transitions (2005–2006 through 2010–2011). This process yields composite time series 80 pentads (400 d) long, which are then filtered by applying and inverting fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) in the time dimension. The first six Fourier coefficients of the full time series are retained, removing variability at time scales <25 d.

Except where otherwise indicated (D, –D regression slopes, surface radiation, enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and fire CO2 emissions), uncertainties in the composite time series are represented by the filtered evolutions over the six transition seasons (seven for SIF; Table S1). Spatial variations within the southern Amazon are not considered in these uncertainty estimates, although separate analyses conducted for data separated by land cover (evergreen forest vs. all other land cover types; Fig. 1) indicate that the results are not sensitive to this distinction. All uncertainty estimates are calculated before applying FFTs, so that lower and upper bounds (where applicable) are smoothed identically to the composite mean. Fig. S7 shows full composite annual cycles for a subset of the variables included in Fig. 2, along with unfiltered onset-relative changes from each year. The latter illustrate the amplitude of the variations removed by the FFT-based low-pass filter.

The timing of wet season onset and the onset-relative composite time series of precipitation are determined using Version 7 of the TRMM 3B42 daily gridded precipitation product at resolution (51). These data are widely used and have been shown to correlate well with other observationally based estimates of rainfall in the Amazon region (3). Transitions between the wet and dry seasons are identified by using the area mean climatological mean precipitation rate calculated from 18 y (1998–2015) of TRMM data. The onset dates for the 2005–2013 wet seasons are listed in Table S1.

Energy and Moisture Fluxes.

Onset-relative composite time series of ET and MFC are constructed from the ERA-Interim (52). ET in units of mmd−1 (kgmd−1) is calculated by dividing the latent heat flux (in units of Wm−2) by the latent heat of vaporization for pure water at 20 °C ( Jkg−1). MFC is calculated by averaging the moisture flux divergence diagnostic provided in the ERA-Interim product over the southern Amazon domain. The sum of ET and MFC should approximately equal precipitation, with changes in atmospheric water storage as a residual. The sum of ET and MFC (and hence precipitation) in ERA-Interim is systematically nearly twice as large as TRMM precipitation through most of the dry season (Figs. S1A and S7). The annual cycle of precipitation based on these two datasets is broadly similar, but wet season onset based on ERA-Interim is typically earlier than wet season onset based on TRMM (Fig. 1A). Wet season onset based on ERA-Interim precipitation is on average pentads earlier than that based on TRMM during 1998–2015 (as much as 40 d earlier in 10 of 18 y) and pentads earlier during the 2005–2011 analysis period (as much as 25 d earlier in 5 of 7 y).

Cloud fraction and radiative fluxes are from Edition 3A of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic Radiative Fluxes and Clouds (SYN1deg) daily data product at spatial resolution (53, 54). Cloud fractions are retrieved by using observations from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites (55) and observations from geostationary satellites (56). Radiation fluxes are computed by using the Fu–Liou radiative transfer model based on observed cloud and aerosol distributions and atmospheric profiles calculated by using the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System. The source of the assimilated atmospheric profiles was changed from GEOS-4.1 (57) to GEOS-5.2 (58) at the beginning of January 2008. CERES SYN1deg has been processed for December 2007 by using both GEOS-4.1 and -5.2. Comparison of these two datasets over the southern Amazon domain indicates that the effects of this change on the variables used in this study are small. Relative changes associated with the switch to GEOS-5.2 are 1% in area mean total cloud fraction, 5% in the vertical profile of cloud fraction, and 1% in net downward radiation flux.

There are considerable differences between the CERES SYN1deg and ERA-Interim estimates of surface solar radiation (Fig. S1B). ERA-Interim underestimates surface insolation relative to CERES during the middle dry season (day −120 through day −75 or so), primarily because it overestimates cloud cover (cf Fig. 2D and Fig. S1B; see also estimated cloud radiative effect in Fig. S2A). By contrast, ERA-Interim overestimates surface insolation during the late dry season (day −60 through day −10), primarily due to aerosol effects (Fig. S2C) that are inadequately represented by the climatological annual cycle of tropospheric aerosols used in the ERA-Interim reanalysis system. These potential errors in surface insolation in ERA-Interim, which represent an important source of uncertainty in the precise evolution of the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes (Fig. 2A and Fig. S1D), are on order 30 W m−2. This uncertainty highlights the importance of using observationally derived variables to provide additional validation for variations in the moisture budget.

Vegetation Metrics and Fire Emissions.

Land cover data at 500-m resolution (Fig. 1) were taken from the 2009 MODIS MCD12Q1 dataset; the SIF and EVI data shown in Fig. 2E and Fig. S4 are averaged over pixels matching the International Geosphere–Biosphere Program land cover type “evergreen broadleaf forest”. SIF, which is considered as a direct proxy for gross primary productivity, is inferred from measurements made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A satellite (32). We use Version 2.6 data, which are publicly available at avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. The original data were provided four times per month during 2007–2014, in 7- or 8-d bins depending on the number of days in the month. We use a linear regression to interpolate these data to 5-d resolution. The area-weighted mean is obtained by averaging SIF over broadleaf forest grid cells in the Southern Amazon region using a reduced-resolution version of the 2009 land cover dataset described above. SIF normalized by the cosine of the solar zenith angle (which removes the effects of seasonal variations in instantaneous incoming solar radiation across satellite overpasses) is shown in Fig. S4A for context.

EVI is used as an alternative measure of rainforest bioproductivity. EVI was computed at 500-m resolution in 16-d increments from MODIS-derived reflectance data standardized to constant view and solar geometry. MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) parameters were taken from the MCD43A1 dataset. Reflectance at nadir view and 30° solar zenith angle was estimated as the linear combination of coefficients in MCD43A1 and the RossThick and LiSparseR kernel functions computed at the specified angles. EVI was computed from reflectance in near-infrared, red, and blue bands (59) and masked outside of [−1, 1]. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the choice of solar zenith angle affected the mean value of the EVI, but not the phase or amplitude of the seasonal cycle. Pixels were masked based on quality flags in the MODIS MCD43A2 dataset. The most restrictive quality control retained only best quality pixels (full BRDF inversion with low residual error), whereas the more permissive quality control retained all pixels with potentially valid data (BRDF inversion completed). The range between these two estimates is shown in Fig. S4B as a measure of uncertainty in the mean evolution of EVI. We generate EVI data using 16-d means at 8-d resolution and linearly interpolate these data to 5-d resolution. Comparison of the seasonal evolutions of SIF and EVI (Fig. S4) shows that changes in SIF lead changes in EVI by 10–15 d, indicating that increases in photosynthesis lead increases in vegetation greenness during the late dry season in this region.

Daily estimates of CO2 emissions from fires are based on Version 3.1 of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) (60, 61). Error bars on GFED3 estimates of fire emissions indicate the minimum and maximum emissions during the 6-y analysis period.

Atmospheric Thermodynamic Variables.

Observations of water vapor and temperature are from Version 6 of the AIRS Level 3 daily gridded product at resolution (62, 63). We use the AIRS TqJoint product based on combined AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit observations (AIRX3RET), which provides consistent gridded profiles of temperature and water vapor on a common vertical grid with eight pressure levels between 1,000 and 300 hPa (previous versions of the AIRS data have reported temperature and water vapor on slightly different vertical grids). We use TqJoint because it facilitates the calculation of equivalent potential temperature and other atmospheric stability metrics that require knowledge of temperature and water vapor at common locations in space and time. Only data from ascending orbits (13:30 local time) are used; this choice is justified by delays of almost 2 mo between the development of daytime convective instability and the development of nighttime convective instability (Fig. S3). The area mean equivalent potential temperature () is calculated from gridded AIRS data at daily time resolution according to the equation[S1]where is the dry potential temperature, is the latent heat of vaporization at 0°C, is the water vapor mass mixing ratio, is the specific heat of dry air at constant pressure, and is the temperature. The time rates of change in early afternoon and early morning are calculated as centered differences in the daily time series of area mean . Temperature and moisture contributions to changes in (Fig. S5) are calculated following the method used by Li and Fu (19). Calculations of CAPE and convective inhibition energy (CINE) (Fig. S3) include the virtual temperature correction (64). CAPE and CINE are calculated for all grid cells for which the necessary surface air and profile variables (pressure, temperature, and water vapor mass mixing ratio) are available within the TqJoint dataset. These gridded daily values are then aggregated into area-weighted 5-d (pentad) mean values.

Isotopic Data.

The deuterium content of a water sample is expressed as the relative ratio D in parts per thousand (‰), where[S2] is the ratio of the number of HDO molecules () to the number of H2O molecules () and is the corresponding / ratio in a reference standard (here Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, for which ). Joint distributions of specific humidity () and D are from retrievals made using the TES on the EOS Aura satellite (49). The data have been processed by using Version 6 of the TES retrieval algorithm (v006_Litev01.00), which simultaneously estimates the volume mixing ratios of HDO, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide (36). Retrieving these four species together substantially improves the vertical resolution, and enables separate retrievals of D in the ABL (surface to 825 hPa) and free troposphere (FT) (750–348 hPa). The onset-relative evolution of these two quantities is shown in Fig. S8. The HDO averaging kernel is primarily sensitive to , where is the HDO/H2O ratio (36, 49). Fig. S9 shows a typical TES HDO averaging kernel for daytime retrievals over the southern Amazon during the late dry season (October 2006), which contains three rows that peak at pressures of 825 hPa or higher and six rows that peak between 750 and 350 hPa. The daytime retrievals are therefore capable of resolving the deuterium distribution in the ABL. Nighttime TES retrievals of water vapor and HDO over the southern Amazon are only weakly sensitive to levels between the surface and 825 hPa, so we omit estimates of ABL D from descending orbits (01:30 local time). We calculate pressure-weighted column mean and water vapor volume mixing ratio for the ABL and FT and then use these quantities to calculate D and water vapor mass mixing ratio in each layer. All valid observations over the southern Amazon region are then binned into onset-relative pentads before averaging or calculating best fit lines (Linear Fits).

The TES data have been screened by using recommended quality control criteria (36): The cloud effective optical depth must be 0.4, and the degrees-of-freedom for signal for the entire profile must be 1. Reasonable adjustments to the quality control criteria mainly affect the data yield and do not alter the qualitative nature of the results. Uncertainties for the TES time series are propagated from individual measurement uncertainties (49). Typical uncertainties in the free troposphere over the southern Amazon are 7–10% on and 3–5% on . The mean degrees of freedom for signal for the vertical layers used here is 0.5–0.6 in the ABL ( 825 hPa) and 1.21.6 in the free troposphere (750  348 hPa). These values indicate that the data are able to capture qualitative variations in both layers and quantitative variations in the free troposphere, but capture only 50–60% of the variability in ABL D (i.e., the seasonal variations in daytime ABL D may be larger than indicated by Fig. S8B). Evaluating ABL D by using observations between the surface and 908 hPa (i.e., omitting the 825 hPa level) reduces the degrees of freedom for signal by about half and shifts estimates of ABL D upward by 5 to 10‰, but the seasonal evolution is qualitatively unchanged.

Boundary Layer D.

The observed evolution of D in the ABL provides independent support for two of the key physical arguments discussed in the main text: strong rainforest transpiration (which maintains high D in ABL vapor) and a deepening boundary layer during the transition season (which increases the amount of high-D air within the ABL layers of the TES averaging kernel). Analysis of the TES averaging kernels (Fig. S9) allows us to reject the possibility that the observed increase in ABL D during the late dry season is explained by cross-correlations between the ABL and FT. The ABL retrieval partially depends on the FT retrieval because the full profile is estimated by using the equation[S3]where is the estimated vertical profile of , is the averaging kernel, is the a priori profile of used to regularize the retrieval, and is the true profile of . Changes in in the FT will therefore affect retrievals of in the ABL and vice versa (Fig. S8). Changes in the FT during the late dry season will have a larger impact on the ABL because the fractional increase in is larger in the FT and the retrieval is performed using , for which changes reflect fractional variability. We can estimate how much increases in the FT HDO/H2O ratio raise the ABL estimate by multiplying (for example) the 908-hPa row of the averaging kernel (red line with diamond located at 908 hPa in Fig. S9) by a vector containing values of ∼0.06 for the 750- to 348-hPa levels (corresponding to the magnitude of the increases in in the FT). This estimate gives an upper bound on the error from cross-correlation because the higher pressures show lower variability than the lower pressures, and shows that cross-correlation with the FT can account for at most a 4‰ increase in D in the ABL, a factor 4–5 smaller than the observed change. Using more realistic values that account for the vertical profile of fractional changes suggests a more likely error of 2‰. We can therefore reject the hypothesis that increases in ABL D are caused by cross-correlation with FT D.

Comparison with D in the ocean ABL further confirms that this increase cannot be attributed to advection from the nearby ocean. The mean value of D in the ABL over the southern Amazon during October 2006 (for example) was −54  6.2‰, whereas that in the ABL over the tropical Atlantic (0–10°N, 30–55°W) was −69  4.7‰ (Fig. S8B). These estimates imply a positive bias of as much as 10‰ in the ABL (D in the ABL over the tropical ocean is generally approximately −80‰), but the Atlantic ABL is nonetheless significantly more depleted than the southern Amazon ABL. Transport from the Atlantic therefore cannot be the source of the observed increase in ABL D. This increase must therefore be due to an increase in the transpiration contribution to the vapor observed in these layers by TES, as transpiration is the only moisture source that can increase the near-surface isotopic composition relative to observed values during the peak dry season (−59 9‰).

Linear Fits.

Linear fits between water vapor mass mixing ratio () and D (Fig. 2F) are calculated by using the same data points used to calculate mean D in the FT (Fig. S8A), but without separating the data into daytime and nighttime observations (this choice is justified by the lack of significant differences in FT

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